Soekry

Juni, 2-2008

Pengaturan Jaringan Internet

Filed under: jaringan — soekry @ 9:48 pm

Penamaan host

Penamaan dalam herarki

Penamaan disimpan dan dikelola secara herarkis oleh server Domain Name Service (DNS). DNS pusat (yaitu root) mendelegasikan subdomain ke pengelola subdomain di bawahnya. Demikian seterusnya.
Untuk memperoleh sebuah domain, seseorang harus mendaftar (biasanya dengan biaya) ke pengelola domain di atasnya. Misalnya, untuk memperoleh “unpar.ac.id”, harus mendaftar ke pemegang domain “ac.id”.

Hubungan nama dan alamat dalam TCP/IP disimpan dan dikelola oleh server yang menyediakan pelayanan Domain Name Service (DNS). Penterjemahan nama-alamat dapat dilakukan dua arah dan tidak harus sama.

Misalnya:

  • IP=10.1.1.12 diberi nama intern-12.unpar.ac.id
  • main-router.unpar.ac.id diberi IP=10.1.1.12

Penterjemahan nama ke IP dan sebaliknya dapat dilakukan secara:

  1. Statis dengan menggunakan file “C:\WINDOWS\HOSTS.” (MS-Windows) atau “/etc/hosts” (UNIX, netware), atau
  2. Dinamis dengan DNS server. Akses ke internet menuntut konfiguras dinamis.

Contoh file HOSTS

# baris yang diawali dengan tanda # diabaikan
# kolom-1       kolom-2          kolom-3
# IP            nama-panjang     nama-pendek
 
# sebaiknya baris berikut ini ada dan tidak diganti
127.0.0.1       localhost
 
# komputer yang sering dihubungi
10.210.1.2      home.unpar.ac.id        home
10.210.1.1      proxy.unpar.ac.id       proxy
167.205.206.59  www.gema.or.id          gema
 
# isian berikut ini pasti salah
10.1.1.267  ngeledek.unpar.ac.id    ngeledek
 
127.0.0.1   mycomputer.mydomain mycomputer

Konfigurasi DNS untuk UNIX ada di file /etc/resolv.conf

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